How to Remove Scale Build-up in Plumbing Pipes.

Limestone (calcium carbonate) and dolomite, which are widespread on the Earth’s surface, often enter the household water supply. Calcium carbonate is insoluble in water.

Water containing Calcium or Magnesium is called hard water, and water that is mostly free of these ions are called soft water.

In the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, calcium carbonate is converted to soluble calcium bicarbonate.

However, when water containing calcium and bicarbonate ions is heated or boiled, the solution reaction is reversed to produce calcium carbonate precipitate and gaseous carbon dioxide is driven off.

Because of this reaction, solid calcium carbonate forms and is the main component of the scale buildup that accumulates in boilers, water heaters, pipes and teakettles.  A thick layer of scale reduces heat transfer and decreases the efficiency and durability of boilers, pipes and appliances.  In household hot-water pipes, it can restrict or totally block the flow of water.

A simple method to remove scale deposits is to introduce a small amount of hydrochloric acid to the system, which reacts with the calcium carbonate and dissolves it.  In this reaction, calcium carbonate is converted to soluble calcium chloride.

How to read your water meter

New York City properties are assessed for
water and sewer services based upon the
amount of water consumed between the
prior and current meter readings. Since
customers may want, or need, to occasionally
read their own meter, the following
information is provided to assist you.
All water meters approved for use by the
New York City Department of Environmental
Protection (DEP) read much like a car’s
odometer. Older meters may have several
dials and pointers, but they are generally
considered obsolete and, in most cases,
should be replaced based on age alone. This
brochure deals only with odometer-type
meters whose basic usage measurements
are shown below:
The three key parts of
your water meter’s register head
1) Flow Indicator
The flow indicator rotates whenever water
flows through the meter. If the triangle
turns when all water is turned off on the
property, you may have a leak, which
should be investigated.
2) Sweep Arm
Each full revolution of the sweep arm
indicates that one cubic foot of water
(about 7.48 gallons) has passed through
the meter. The markings at the dial’s
outer edge indicate tenths
and hundredths of one cubic foot.
3) The Register
The water meter register is a lot like the
mileage odometer on your car. It keeps a
running total of all the water that has
passed through the meter. The register
shown here indicates that 345,710 cubic
feet of water has passed through this

For the full specifications on how to read a DEP approved water meter, please click on the Department of Environmental Protection link below.